Making Classical Political Economy and Marxism Easy to Understand.

by Brian A. Mitchell in the UK on November 19, 2017

Barricade Voltaire Lenoir, Paris Commune

It is important to point out that Marxist economics is not, as mainstream propaganda continuously tries to have us believe, about communism. Marxism is not a plan for communism. Marxism is a thorough analysis of capitalism and how it works. His main three-volume work is called Capital (Das Capital). It develops the work of the Classical Economists of England and France, such as the favourite of conservatives or capitalists: Adam Smith, and shows that capitalist society consists of only two economic classes: (a) a tiny percentage of the population, the capitalist class, who own the land, the means of production, the commodities produced, banking and finance, and the profits made, and control political power; and (b) the overwhelming majority rest of us, the working class, whose only means of subsistence is wages from the capitalist class. Implementing or planning socialism or communism is up to political parties. It is not the policy of any modern communist or socialist party to “export” socialism to or impose it on other countries, which is not possible. On the other hand, export of capitalism has always been the essential aim of capitalism and imperialism.

“Marx’s great achievement was to place the system of capitalism on the defensive.”

(US writer Charles Madison.)

“What we would call capitalism he [Scottish classical economist Adam Smith] despised. People read snippets of Adam Smith, the few phrases they teach in school… But not many people get to the point hundreds of pages later, where he says that division of labor will destroy human beings and turn people into creatures as stupid and ignorant as it is possible for a human being to be.”

(Noam Chomsky.)

“Labor is prior to, and independent of, capital. Capital is only the fruit of labor, and could never have existed if labor had not first existed. Labor is the superior of capital, and deserves much the higher consideration.”

(US President Abraham Lincoln, 1861. Superb Marxism Mr President!)

The following is a compilation of quotes are from the economic theorist beloved of conservatives, Scottish Classical Economist Adam Smith, all of which were developed more fully by Marx’s explanation of how capitalism works:

“Civil government, so far as it is instituted for the security of property, is in reality instituted for the defense of the rich against the poor, or of those who have some property [as capital] against those who have none at all.”

(Adam Smith. No Marxist would disagree with this.)

“The value of any commodity, therefore, to the person who possesses it, and who means not to use or consume it himself, but to exchange it for other commodities, is equal to the quantity of labour which it enables him to purchase or command. Labour, therefore, is the real measure of the exchangeable value of all commodities.”

[Adam Smith. This is the same as Marx’s Labour Theory of Value.]

“The word value, it is to be observed, has two different meanings, and sometimes expresses the utility of some particular object, and sometimes the power of purchasing other goods which the possession of that object conveys. The one may be called ‘value in use;’ the other, ‘value in exchange.’”

[Adam Smith. This is the same as Marx’s use value and exchange value.]

“Labour therefore, is the real measure of the exchangeable value of all commodities. The real price of every thing, what every thing really costs to the man who wants to acquire it, is the toil and trouble of acquiring it.”

[Adam Smith. This is the same as Marx’s labour theory of value.]

“It was not by gold or by silver, but by labour, that all the wealth of the world was originally purchased.”

[Adam Smith. Same as Marx’s Labour Theory of Value.]

“Labour alone, therefore, never varying in its own value, is alone the ultimate and real standard by which the value of all commodities can at all times and places be estimated and compared. It is their real price; money is their nominal price only. … labour, like commodities, may be said to have a real and a nominal price. Its real price may be said to consist in the quantity of the necessaries and conveniencies of life which are given for it; its nominal price, in the quantity of money. The labourer is rich or poor, is well or ill rewarded, in proportion to the real, not to the nominal price of his labour.”

[Adam Smith. Same as Marx’s Labour Theory of Value.]

“The annual labour of every nation is the fund which originally supplies it with all the necessaries and conveniences of life which it annually consumes.”

[Adam Smith. Same as Marx’s Labour Theory of Value.]

“Labour was the first price, the original purchase-money that was paid for all things. It was not by gold or by silver, but by labour, that all the wealth of the world was originally purchased; and its value, to those who possess it, and who want to exchange it for some new productions, is precisely equal to the quantity of labour which it can enable them to purchase or command.”

[Adam Smith. Same as Marx’s Labour Theory of Value.]

“The value which the workmen add to the materials, therefore, resolves itself in this case into two parts, of which the one pays their wages, the other the profits of the employer upon the whole stock of materials and wages which he advanced. … The natural price, therefore, is, as it were, the central price, to which the prices of all commodities are continually gravitating.”

[Adam Smith. Same as Marx’s Labour Theory of Value.]

“Wherever there is great property there is great inequality. For one very rich man there must be at least five hundred poor, and the affluence of the few supposes the indigence of the many. The affluence of the rich excites the indignation of the poor, who are often both driven by want, and prompted by envy, to invade his possessions.”

[Adam Smith. This is thoroughly reflects Marx’s analysis of capitalist socio-economic relations.]

“No society can surely be flourishing and happy, of which the far greater part of the members are poor and miserable… they who feed, clothe, and lodge the whole body of the people, should have such a share of the produce of their own labour as to be themselves tolerably well fed, clothed, and lodged.”

[Adam Smith. This fully reflects Marx’s Labour Theory of Value.]

“It is not very unreasonable that the rich should contribute to the public expense, not only in proportion to their revenue, but something more than in that proportion.”

[Adam Smith. In other words, tax the rich, fully and heavily.]

“As soon as the land of any country has all become private property, the landlords, like all other men, love to reap where they never sowed, and demand a rent even for its natural produce.”

[Adam Smith. This fully reflects a Marxist history of British land acquisition.]

“Our merchants and masters complain much of the bad effects of high wages in raising the price and lessening the sale of goods. They say nothing concerning the bad effects of high profits. They are silent with regard to the pernicious effects of their own gains. They complain only of those of other people.”

(The above is a compilation of quotes of the Scottish Classical Economist, the darling of conservatives or capitalists, Adam Smith, all of which are fully supported by Marxist economics. Capitalists carefully use Smith’s work selectively to support capitalism, even though Smith himself did not, along with the other classical economists.)

“It is not by the absolute quantity of produce obtained by either class, that we can correctly judge of the rate of profit, rent, and wages, but by the quantity of labour required to obtain that produce. … The opinions that the price of commodities depends solely on the proportion of supply and demand, or demand to supply, has become almost an axiom in political economy, and has been the source of much error in that science. … There is no way of keeping profits up but by keeping wages down.”

(English classical economist David Ricardo. Like Adam Smith and other classical economists, this is also in full agreement with Marxism.)

“There must be something rotten in the very core of a social system which increases its wealth without diminishing its misery.”

(Karl Marx.)

“I owe it to the bourgeois [French: Capital owning class] so that they can convince themselves how vastly superior the uneducated workers, for whom one can easily make comprehensible the most difficult economic analysis, are to our supercilious”educated people” to whom such intricate questions remain insoluble their whole life long.”

(Frederick Engels, in his introduction to Marx’s “Wage Labour and Capital.”)

“The State should take the entire management of commerce, industry, and agriculture into its own hands, with a view of succouring the working classes and preventing their being ground to the dust by the rich.”

(11th Century Chinese statesman Wang-An-Shih – Seven Centuries before Marx.)

“The professional study of [capitalist] economics has become ideological brainwashing. It is a defense of the excesses of the capitalist system. … Capitalism is not about free competitive choices among people who are reasonably equal in their buying and selling of economic power, it is about concentrating capital, concentrating economic power in very few hands using that power to trash everyone who gets in their way.

(US economist David Korten.)

“Change the economic base and you will change human beings.”

(Karl Marx. This is very true, as any acquaintance with the majority of Cuban society, Cuban social culture, foreign policy, internationalism, education and health, and the writings of such as Fidel Castro and Ernesto (Che) Guevara will show anybody with a genuine humanitarian mind. This was also quite apparent during my Soviet travels and at various socialist countrys’ embassy receptions. Indeed, it is apparent among too amsll a number of socialist minded British people.)

“I am convinced there is only one way to eliminate these grave evils, namely through the establishment of a socialist economy, accompanied by an educational system which would be oriented toward social goals.”

(Albert Einstein.)

“I am convinced Socialism is the only answer and I urge all comrades to take this struggle to a victorious conclusion. Only this will free us from the chains of bigotry and exploitation.”

(Malala Yousafzai, Pakistani education activist shot by the Taliban and survived.)

“All economic and political institutions are contrivances that should serve the interests of the people. When they fail to do so, they should be replaced by something more responsive, more just, and more democratic. Marx said this, and so did [US founding President.] Thomas Jefferson.”

(US political economist, social scientist and author Michael Parenti.)

“They talk about the failure of socialism but where is the success of capitalism in Africa, Asia and Latin America?”

(Cuban leader 1959-2008 Fidel Castro.)

“No longer could I resist the conclusion that capitalism was doomed. No longer must the livelihood of the community rest in irresponsible hands; blast furnaces remaining cold, mines undug and houses unbuilt, unless somebody’s private profit set forward the lighting, the digging and the building. Shivering miners could not dig the coal they needed, naked men could not weave their shirts and coats, nor could the man who lived seven in a single room enter a brickyard and build himself a house; though he kicked his heels for a dozen years in idleness, he must remain in misery if no one could make a profit from his labour. The public that needed these things and could produce them had no access to the land and machinery of production. Private profit took precedence of human life. Christian morality, if it was to be true to its mission, must find these things intolerable and demand reform.”

(Dean of Canterbury Dr. Hewlett Johnson.)

“I take as a point of departure the possibility and desirability of a fundamentally different form of society, call it communism, if you will, in which men and women, freed from the pressures of scarcity and from the insecurity of everyday existence under capitalism, shape their own lives. Collectively they decide who, how, when, and what shall be produced.”

(British author and economist Michael Burawoy, in his book “Manufacturing Consent.”)

“We can not have equilibrium in this world with the current inequality and destruction of Mother Earth. Capitalism is what is causing this problem and it needs to end.”

(Bolivian socialist President Evo Morales.)

“I am opposing a social order in which it is possible for one man who does absolutely nothing that is useful to amass a fortune of hundreds of millions of dollars, while millions of men and women who work all the days of their lives secure barely enough for a wretched existence.”

(US Socialist leader Eugene Debs, in court convicted of opposing the US Sedition Act, 1918. [The wealth ratio or wealth gap in Britain was such that in the mid 1980s 7 percent of the population owned as private capital assets 84 percent of the country’s wealth. This wealth gap has been increasing since Victorian times, and by 2014 it was some 6 percent of the population owned some 90 percent or more of the national wealth. That wealth gap is still increasing.])

“To secure for the workers by hand or by brain the full fruits of their industry and the most equitable distribution thereof that may be possible upon the basis of the common ownership of the means of production, distribution and exchange, and the best obtainable system of popular administration and control of each industry or service”.

(British Labour Party Clause 4, removed in 1995 by Blair’s New Labour.)

“Money is not wealth. Money is a claim on wealth.”

(David Korten, US economist and internationalist. [This is pure Marxism, which distinguishes between wealth and money.])

“Capitalism did not arise because capitalists stole the land or the workmen’s tools, but because it was more efficient than feudalism. It will perish because it is not merely less efficient than socialism, but actually self-destructive.”

(British born British Indian biologist and socialist John (J.B.S.) Haldane.)

“A capitalist creates wealth no more than a person who milks a cow creates milk.”

(Karl Marx. [It is essential to know the difference between wealth and price. A capitalist can make a profit without increasing total wealth, by transferring money wealth to himself.])

“When Marx spoke of private property he was not referring to personal property. Private property meant the means of production of the capitalist who hires property-less individuals.”

(Erich Fromm. [It is essential to understand that in Political Economy, under which Marxism is known, is meant private property as capital, as ownership of the means of production as well as the commodities produced and the profits thus made. It does not mean your car or television.])

“We are not presenting the world with a new principle, saying iin a doctrinaire fashion: ”Here is the truth – fall on your knees before it!” We are deriving new principles for the world, and deriving them from principles already inherent in the world. We are showing the world what it is in fact fighting for; and consciousness is something the world must acquire, even if it does not want to.”

(Heinrich Heine, on Marxism.)

“This primitive accumulation plays in political economy about the same part as original sin in theology. … Its origin is supposed to be explained when it is told as an anecdote of the past. In times long gone by there were two sorts of people; one, the diligent, the intelligent, and above all, frugal elite; the other, lazy rascals, spending their subsistence, and more, in riotous living. … Thus it came to pass that the former sort accumulated wealth and the latter sort had at last nothing to sell but their own skins. And from this original sin dates the poverty of the great majority that, despite all its labour, has up to now nothing to sell but itself; and the wealth of the few that increases constantly, although they have long ceased to work. Such widespread childishness is every day preached to us in defence of property.”

(Karl Marx. [It is essential to note that “property” referred to by Marxism means capital in the means of production in order to make profit. It does not mean property such as your car or TV.])

“My idea, as the whole world knows, is that the capitalist system now doesn’t work either for the United States or the world, driving it from crisis to crisis, which are each time more serious.”

(Cuban leader 1959-2008 Fidel Castro. [This refers to the economic law of the falling rate of profit.])

“When asked whether or not we are Marxists, our position is the same as that of a physicist, when asked if he is a ”Newtonian” or of a biologist when asked if he is a ”Pasteurian.”

(Ernesto ”Che” Guevara.)

“The worst enemy of humanity is U.S. capitalism. That is what provokes uprisings like our own, a rebellion against a system, against a neoliberal model, which is the representation of a savage capitalism. If the entire world doesn’t acknowledge this reality, that the national states are not providing even minimally for health, education and nourishment, then each day the most fundamental human rights are being violated. … Capitalism and the thirst for profit without limits of the capitalist system are destroying the planet…Climate change has placed all humankind before a great choice: to continue in the ways of capitalism and death, or to start down the path of harmony with nature and respect for life. … Globalization creates economic policies where the transnationals lord over us, and the result is misery and unemployment.”

(Bolivian socialist President Evo Morales.)

“We must reduce all the emissions that are destroying the planet. However, that requires a change in lifestyle, a change in the economic model: We must go from capitalism to socialism.”

(Venezuelan socialist President Hugo Chavez.)

“Each day in the world 200 million children sleep in the streets. Not one of them is Cuban.”

(Vice President of Cuba Carlos Lage, to the United Nations General Assembly, 1996.)

“Wherever capitalism appears, in pursuit of its mission of exploitation, there will Socialism, fertilized by misery, watered by tears, and vitalized by agitation be also found, unfurling its class-struggle banner and proclaiming its mission of emancipation.”

(US Socialist leader Eugene Debs.)

“When socialism has triumphed, when conditions of peace have succeeded conditions of combat, when all men have their share of property in the immense human capital, and their share of initiative and of the exercise of free-will in the immense human activity, then all men will know the fulness of pride and joy; and they will feel that they are co-operators in the universal civilisation.”

(French socialist leader Jean Jaures (assassinated in 1914).)

“One of the chief arguments used in support of the policy of an open shop is that every man has an inalienable and constitutional right to work. I never found that in the [US] Constitution. If a man has the constitutional right to work, he ought to have a constitutional right to a job… A man has the right to work only if he can get a job…”

(US criminal lawyer Clarence Darrow. [The socialist Soviet Constitution guaranteed the right to a job by law, but Russia now has the usual capitalist unemployment problem. Cuba’s constitution also guarantees the right to life and all that entails. Naturally, the right to life itself is totally meaningless if it does not guarantee the right to the means of life – food, home, health, education and work.])

“Socialism: ‘From each according to his ability; to each according to his work’.

Communism: ‘From each according to his ability; to each according to his needs’.

Both definitions had one thing in common – ‘from each according to his ability’. All must work, and work according to his ability. Some as artists, some as artisans, others as organisers, teachers, as engineers and so forth – all must work. It is interesting to note that the Soviet Union was the first state to put duties into its constitution.

It followed, of course, that if all must work, all must be provided for the opportunity for work. And that brought us to the second clause of the definition of socialism – ‘To each according to his work’. It ensured the right to an adequate reward for work. Furthermore, as work varied in value or quality, reward in a socialist state would also vary in amount. Socialist society was not an egalitarian society. Socialist society was the stage of society [reached B.M.] in Russia. The corollary that each must receive an adequate reward for work, together with provision for opportunity for work, postulated a planned economy. It also postulated control by the whole community of land, power and all natural resources and productive processes…

I then passed to Marx’s definition of communism. Like socialism, communism demanded work from all, in a planned economy: ‘From each according to his ability’. But there the likeness ended, the second half of the definition ran thus: ‘To each according to his need’. Not, observe, according to his work, but ‘according to his need’.

Socialism came first; communism followed. You could not spring straight into communism at once, the ground had to be prepared for 2 reasons: only a rich state could provide enough consumable goods to give ‘each according to his need’ and only a disciplined people dare try it. It would break down in a work-shy society…

It was the contention of socialists and communists alike that the socialist state would provide in time the quantity of goods and the quality of character – a rich state and an advancing morality – to build communism.”

(The ”Red” Dean of Canterbury Hewlett Johnson, in his excellent book ”Searching For Light.” [It is essential to note that the socialist stage, however long it lasts or is needed, is a stage on the lengthy progress through many generations to communism sometime in the future.])

“Capitalism is the specter, almost nobody wants to mention it… Socialism, the other specter Karl Marx spoke about… this is the direction, this is the path to save the planet, I don’t have the least doubt. Capitalism is the road to hell, to the destruction of the world.”

(Venezuelan socialist President Hugo Chavez.)

“How can the Soviet Union be labelled imperialist? Where are its monopoly corporations? Where is its participation in multinational companies? What factories, what mines, what oilfields does it own in the underdeveloped world? What worker is exploited in any country of Asia, Africa and Latin America by Soviet capital? Soviet cooperation with Cuba and many other countries is based not on the sweat and sacrifice of exploited workers of other countries, but on the labour and efforts of the Soviet people.”

(Cuban leader 1959-2008 Fidel Castro.)

“Soviet Russia exploits no colonies, seeks to exploit none. Soviet Russia operates no foreign trade cartels, seeks none to exploit. Stalin’s policies have wiped out racial, religious, national and class antagonisms within the Soviet territories. This unity and harmony of the Soviet peoples points the path to international peace.”

(US Red Cross official in Russia Major Raymond Robbins.)

“The few own the many because they possess the means of livelihood of all … The country is governed for the richest, for the corporations, the bankers, the land speculators, and for the exploiters of labor. The majority of mankind are working people. So long as their fair demands – the ownership and control of their livelihoods – are set at naught, we can have neither men’s rights nor women’s rights. The majority of mankind is ground down by industrial oppression in order that the small remnant may live in ease.”

(US deaf-blind lecturer and author Helen Keller, 1940.)

“Everyday I become more convinced, there is no doubt in my mind, as many intellectuals have said, that it is necessary to transcend capitalism. But capitalism can not be transcended through capitalism itself; it must be done through socialism, true socialism, with equality and justice. I’m also convinced that it is possible to do it under democracy, but not in the type of democracy being imposed by Washington.” … “Capitalism is the way of the devil and exploitation. If you really want to look at things through the eyes of Jesus Christ – who I think was the first socialist – only socialism can really create a genuine society.” … “Privatization is a neoliberal and imperialist plan. Health can’t be privatized because it is a fundamental human right, nor can education, water, electricity and other public services. They can’t be surrendered to private capital that denies the people from their rights.”

(Venezuelan socialist President Hugo Chavez.)

“The victorious proletariat cannot impose on any other country its own idea of a happy life without doing damage to its own victory.”

(Karl Marx.)

“We’re not advocating subversive ideas. We’re not advocating, as I have said, a social revolution… We cannot suggest socialism as a prerequisite [for negotiations]. We’re not recommending socialism, but of course neither are we advising against it. … We tell them: sit down and stop trying to impose your political system on the whole world by force. Stop dreaming that you are going to change the world; stop dreaming that you are going to halt the course of history; …solve your problems through negotiation. If they want to maintain capitalism in their own countries, let them maintain it for as long as they want. That is their own business. We are not going to go to the United States to make a revolution there or to impose socialism on them. In an academic discussion we can prove to them that socialism is better, more humane, more rational and fairer than capitalism, but we cannot go there and tell them: change your social system. Roast yourselves on that fire for as long as you want. It will not be forever, but that is not our business. Nobody will ever want to change the capitalist system by force, to impose socialism in Europe, in Japan, in the United States, in Canada, in Australia; nobody will ever want to do that… Sit down and discuss, and save a third of what you are spending on the madness of war and give us back what you are stealing from us.”

(Cuban President Fidel Castro.)

“The history of a social system will be decided not by rockets, not by atomic and hydrogen bombs, but by the fact of which social system ensures greater material and spiritual benefits to man. … It is not true that we regard violence and civil war as the only way to remake society… The Communist system must be based on the will of the people, and if the people should not want that system, then that people should establish a different system. … If you feed the people just with revolutionary slogans they will listen today, they will listen tomorrow, they will listen the day after tomorrow, but on the fourth day they will say: ”To hell with you!””

(Soviet President Nikita Kruschev.)

“The Government of the USSR considers that, despite the differences in the economic systems and ideologies, the co-existence of these systems and a peaceful settlement of differences between the USSR and the United States are not only possible, but also doubtless necessary in the interests of general peace. … The export of revolution is nonsense. … Without the support of millions, the best minority is impotent. … Every country makes its own revolution if it wants to, and if it does not want to, there will be no revolution. … We Marxists believe that revolution will occur in other countries as well. But it will come at a time when it is considered possible or necessary by the revolutionaries in these countries. … to assert that we desire to bring about revolution in other countries by interfering with their way of life is to speak of something that does not exist, and which we have never preached.”

(Josef Stalin.)

“Communists are convinced that the future belongs to socialism. Such is the march of history. But this does not at all mean that we are going to engage in the ‘export of revolution’, in the interference in the affairs of other countries. The ‘export of revolution’ is altogether impossible. Socialism grows only on the soil of objective requirements of the social development of each particular country.”

(Soviet President Yuri Andropov, June 15 1983.)

“It is the imperialists who need weapons, since they are completely devoid of ideas. They need weapons and they must stockpile them against everybody’s will in order to maintain their opprobrious system… But when there are ideas, these ideas can be defended and they can be made to prevail. Ideas don’t need weapons, if they can win the masses over to their cause. No one can think that the contradiction between capitalism and socialism can be settled by force. You’d have to be out of your mind to think that way, and that’s the way the imperialists think. That’s why they have military bases all over the world, threaten everybody and intervene everywhere. Where are the socialist countries’ military bases?”

(Cuban President 1959-2008 Fidel Castro.)

“It’s sensible, Anyone can understand it. It’s easy, You’re not an exploiter – so you can grasp it. Find out more about it. The stupid call it stupid, the squalid call it squalid, It is against squalor and against stupidity. The exploiters call it a crime, But we know it is the end of crime. It’s not madness but the end of madness. It’s not the riddle but the solution. It is the simple thing so hard to achieve.”

(German progressive writer and playwright Berthold Brecht. ”In Praise of Communism.”)

“Fidel Castro is a man with a great sense of self-criticism and respect for his political friends. He is not going to give me instructions, and I am not the type of man who would take them. That’s not to say that I don’t approve of what is happening in Cuba, but he would never send me a letter telling me what to do or not to do.”

(Chilean socialist President Salvador Allende.)

The Capitalist Ideology:

“A collective action to eradicate international communism is not an act of intervention in the internal affairs of another State but is an act to uproot intervention.”

(US Secretary of State John Foster Dulles, Chicago, New York Times, Nov 30 1954.)

“A real danger of Soviet domination of Western Europe does not lie in an invasion of Western Germany by Russian armoured divisions… A much more probable contingency is that the Soviet Union might achieve its aims without firing a single shot. And that will almost certainly happen if the West has abandoned the will, the military resources, the collective deterrent and the defensive system with which it can resist threats and blackmail. It is for this reason that unilateral disarmament by the West poses such appalling dangers.”

(British Lord Chalfont.)

“The greatest threat to the security of the United States within the forseeable future stems from the hostile designs and formidable power of the USSR, and from the nature of the Soviet system [meaning socialism]… Never before have the intentions and strategic objectives of an aggressor nation been so clearly defined. For a hundred years, victory in the class struggle of the proletariat versus the bourgeoisie has been identified as the means by which Communism would dominate the world.”

(From US secret document NSC 20/4. Report by the National Security Council on US Objectives With Respect to the USSR to Counter [socialist] Threats to US Security. It is the validity of socialist or Marxist ideas which the US calls”aggression” and cannot counter.)

“While we have become increasingly international in our thinking, multinational in our commerce, and independent on global issues, the Soviet Union still emphasises the primacy of sovereignty and national independence.”

(Marshal Schulman, US Soviet Affairs Adviser to the Secretary of State, to the Foreign Affairs Subcommittee, Oct 16 1979.)

“A war with the Soviet Union appears to me to be unavoidable. The idea of peaceful coexistence is simply humbug.”

(US General Kenny, Sept 1954.)

“We must not allow… our well-planned and steady rebuilding of America’s defences to be overcome by a child-like hope for detente with a country whose sole aim is and always has been world domination.”

(US Secretary of Defense Caspar Weinberger, 1986. [So US policy isn’t world domination?!])

“To the greatest extent tolerated by the Soviet Government, we should distribute books, magazines, newspapers and movies among the Soviets, beam radio broadcasts to the USSR… Within the United States, communist penetration should be exposed and eliminated.”

(Report on American relations with the Soviet Union, Special Council to the Press, 1946.)

“A major criticism… of our programme in the field of information and propaganda is the failure to formulate a definite, conscious purpose… In contrast, the communist bloc appears to know just where it is going… We are in a war of ideas, but we have not found our ideas… Our policy has been too negative, its programmes and slogans almost always a mere response, or reaction, to the more imaginative ideas of the Soviets… the rich and powerful United States has offered no inspirational idea or positive social programme.”

(Princeton University Professor John Whitton in “Propaganda and the Cold War.”)

“We are being told that we can sit down and negotiate with this enemy of ours, and that there’s a little right and a little wrong on both sides. How do you compromise between good and evil? How do you say to this enemy that we can compromise our belief in God and his dialectical determinism (sic)?”

(US President Reagan. [The philosophical term is dialectical materialism.])

“…nothing else will matter unless we win the war of ideas.”

(US Secretary of State John Kerry.)

“The central fact of today’s life is the existence in the world of two great philosphies of man and of government. They are in contest… Hundreds of millions make up the jury which must decide the case… The system… which most effectively musters its strength in support of peace and demonstrates its ability to advance the well-being, the happiness of the individual, will win their verdict.”

(US President Eisenhower, August 1955.)

“We stand for the maintenance of private property… We shall protect free enterprise as the most expedient, or rather the sole possible economic order.”

(Adolph Hitler. [It is important not to be fooled by the “National Socialism” of the Nazis.])

“Fascism should more appropriately be called Corporatism because it is a merger of State and corporate power.”

(Fascist dictator of Italy Benito Mussolini.)

“fas-cism (fâsh’iz’em) n. A system of government that exercises a dictatorship of the extreme right, typically through the merging of state and business leadership, together with belligerent nationalism. [Ital. fascio, group.] -fas’cist n. -fas-cis’tic (fa-shis’tik) adj.”

(The American Heritage Dictionary 1983.)

“I’m afraid, based on my own experience, that fascism will come to America in the name of national security.”

(US attorney Jim Garrison.)

“The community of arms is there to defend the community of ideas.”

(Ronald Reagan, speaking on NATO, November 15 1982.)

“Our fear that communism might someday take over most of the world blinds us to the fact that anti-communism already has.”

(US political economist, social scientist and author Michael Parenti.)

Brian was born in the bombed out wartime East End of London and developed an interest in political books early on. He worked in various technical fields for 20 years, all of which thoroughly bored him. He entered academic life (History and Classical Economics) and became an independent journalist, worked for the ANC (secret at the time) until the end of apartheid, and was a trade union representative in a large hospital. He is now retired and still works (when able) as an independent journalist.

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