Reds in Space: Socialist Science Fiction

by modulus on December 30, 2013

There’s a general view that science fiction is a literature of reaction. Michael Moorcock, tracing the pulp origins of its so-called “golden age” mocks the notion that it’s a literature of ideas in his Starship Stormtroopers — titled after Heinlein’s Starship Troopers, a novel which does, sadly, make a strong case for his position.

Not all science fiction has a reactionary message though. As this list of science fiction for socialists shows, there’s a great deal to read about the future without falling victim to the typical tropes of the expansion of the frontier and manifest destiny — now in space.

Science fiction has the advantage as a literature for socialism that it looks towards the future. While mainstream literature attempts to analyse the varying nature of humans in the every day world we all know, and too much change would distract from this task, SF speaks to us of the dialectic between science, technology, society, and the individual: it feeds on change. This is why it’s possible to explore socialism — as well as other radical social changes — in a way that’s unavailable to other genres.

More than the particular worlds science fiction explores, though, it’s perhaps most interesting because it shows us something which is often overlooked: another world is possible; things change. The conditions of life of today weren’t those of yesterday and won’t be those of tomorrow.

Some people have called SF the “literary apparat of the technocratic movement”, and they do have a point. There’s a strong strand of science fiction which presents society as a machine which needs to be run by those who properly understand it. That’s not a fault of the parameters of the genre, though, but just the fact that the same freedom which allows us to speculate about socialism allows others to speculate about other things.

I’ll present a few of my favourite socialist SF and a short description. Let us know what yours is on the comments.

The Culture, by Iain Banks. This is a collection of novels focused on a social formation which calls itself the Culture. They have dealt with scarcity, and their production systems are largely managed by benevolent and powerful AIs called Minds. However, to give their lives meaning, they feel they ought to do something more than just enjoy themselves, so they try to improve other societies through interventions which are statistically demonstrated to lead to higher utility.

Accelerando, by Charles Stross. A novel dealing with the Singularity, it presents the difficulties entailed by the transition to post-scarcity, and the participation in the economy of super-human intelligences, which may stand as a metaphor for corporations.

Most of the works by Harry Harrison, particularly the Stainless Steel Rat series. Harry Harrison presents dynamic worlds, changing societies, and even looks at ethics as something socially determined and constructed. His Deathworld series is another case where this tendency is particularly distinct, and refreshing.

Ken MacLeod’s entire bibliography. As an ex-trotskyist, now ensnared by the siren songs of mutualism, much of his work treats the socialist hypothesis very seriously.

Ursula K. LeGuin’s The Dispossessed. Just read it.

Voyage from Yesteryear, by James P. Hogan. Given the risks of nuclear war, a space ship is sent to another planet to preserve humanity, but there’s not enough energy to send adults: only embryos can be sent. The children are risen by AIs, and they create a unique society for themselves, which is put at risk when further ships from Earth are sent, this time with the object of colonisation.

Last, and just for the sake of completeness, Robert Heinlein’s Beyond this Horizon is a strange exploration of a world with eugenics, but also some kind of quasi-socialist, or at least semi-planned economy, based on principles that sounds slightly similar to those of social credit. For the incredulous, I quote a paragraph:

Monroe-Alpha shook his head. “Finance structure is a general theory and applies equally to any type of state. A complete socialism would have as much need for structural appropriateness in its cost accounting as do free entrepreneurs. The degree of public ownership as compared with the degree of free enterprise is a cultural matter. For example, food is, of course, free, but—”

What’s your favourite socialist science fiction? Are there other genres you think present socialism’s message better? What other SF not explicitly socialist do you like?

{ 42 comments… read them below or add one }

Wesley Rykalski December 30, 2013 at 8:17 pm

This is a very problematic list. Le Guin’s politics are clearly anarchistic & Heinlein was a (far) right libertarian. Also I’m not sure that setting a work in a post-scarcity economy necessarily makes for socialism.

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John Drinkwater December 31, 2013 at 1:09 pm

Anarchists are socialists too, my friend. Leave Le Guin alone.

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stevenjohnson2 December 31, 2013 at 5:44 pm

Le Guin is not a socialist. She is a social pacifist whose ideology rejects revolution out of hand. (See Malafrena.) None of her works since The Dispossessed feature an industrial society and I think this is because she is hostile to the working class. I’m inclined to put even her feminism to the right of a Russ, much less a Piercy.

Despite the rare Kropotkins, anarchism as a movement is fundamentally reactionary utopianism and will always fail. Spanish anarachism, you say? The history of the Spanish Civil War has been dominated by antiCommunists obsessed with demonstrating the Stalinists lost the war. But these people are like the Confederates who try to blame Gettysburg on anybody but the Yankees. I think Spanish anarchism is the only significant left anarachist movement that ever existed and it was the primary cause of the failure of the Spanish Revolution.

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John Drinkwater January 2, 2014 at 3:15 am

Well, since I’m on the opposite side as you and consider Lenin the real counter-revolutionary (never mind Stalin), there’s probably little point in me responding beyond that note.

As someone who has read much of the historiography on the Spanish Civil War (in addition to of course Orwell, Chomsky and Burnett Bolloten) I find your assessment too ridiculous to merit any kind of lengthy response.

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stevenjohnson2 January 2, 2014 at 4:40 pm

Well, I wrote hastily. The primary proximate cause of the failure of the Spanish Revolution was the Nationalists winning too many of the battles.

That said, the Anarchists were the primary players in the revolution because they were the largest revolutionary party. The Communists (and POUMists too) were too negligible for much of the revolution to assign them blame.

I’m sympathetic to the possibilty that the May Days may have advanced the revolution to victory by changing the social balance of forces. But this notion is a counterfactual, not a fact. If the Anarchists couldn’t defeat the Loyalist government, was it really more certain they could defeat the Fascists?

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John Drinkwater January 3, 2014 at 11:10 pm

You don’t seem to realize the Communists attacked the anarchists while the latter were trying to defend the country against Franco’s forces. This was a new level of backstabbing, even for the Bolsheviks. Stalin viewed the anarchist collectivization of thousands of worker-run factories and farms as a threat to his rule and thus ordered his minions to destroy these initiatives at all costs.

The Fascists, Communists and western democracies all agreed on one thing: a free people running their own country had to be destroyed before they could fight it out to see who institute the next oppressive regime.

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stevenjohnson2 January 4, 2014 at 5:00 pm

I foolishly thought the Loyalist bourgeoisie and Companys had something to do with suppressing the CNT. I was even foolish enough to think that those forces might have found it easier to blame Antonov-Ovseenko, or even use him. Obviously I have vastly underestimated the magical powers of Communist subversion.

All humor aside, my remark that Stalin was tailing the bourgeoisie was meant as a severe criticism.

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Ty Hudson January 4, 2014 at 2:14 am

The POUM was certainly tiny, and perhaps nobody would even remember they existed if Orwell hadn’t been a fighter in their militia. But the Spanish Communist Party, while smaller than the CNT/FAI, was certainly not “negligible.” I don’t know under what circumstances the CNT might have been able to keep the capitalists in the Republican government from dismantling the revolution in Barcelona, but certainly it would have been nice if the Stalinists had not poured all the Soviet resources at their disposal into helping them dismantle it. The chances of ultimately defeating the Fascists may have been greater in that case as well.

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stevenjohnson2 January 4, 2014 at 4:55 pm

I agree, except that the CP really was negligible when the best chance for a successful outcome arose, namely, at the beginning of the Civil War, in 1936. That show was all CNT/FAI.

But maybe this is a glass half empty or glass half full kind of question? I think your position here contradicts the usual view, where only Stalin prevented Loyalist victory.

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Ty Hudson January 4, 2014 at 8:03 pm

Fair enough. But if that’s the usual view, I think it’s a pretty egregious example of retrospective wishful thinking. Maybe it’s true, maybe not, but we can’t possibly know.

My understanding of the resistance to Franco’s coup in Catalonia corresponds pretty well with your statement that “that show was all CNT/FAI.” (I’m less familiar with what happened in other parts of Spain, but my limited understanding is that the UGT and the PCE were more prominent in Madrid and other areas. Remember that the PCE was a leading component of the Popular Front that won the 1936 elections that precipitated the civil war in the first place.)

But given that, and given the forces arrayed against them, it’s hardly a reason to blame the anarchists for Franco’s victory. And it’s hardly evidence that anarchism “will always fail.” You might as well cite the October Revolution as evidence that socialism will always fail. To say that Spanish anarchism “was the primary cause of the failure of the Spanish revolution” is like saying that the plantation system, the ideology of white supremacy, the doctrine of states’ rights, the formation of the Confederate government, and the revolt at Fort Sumter were the primary reasons that the South lost the Civil War. It makes no sense. It’s like saying that the revolution itself was the primary cause of the failure of the revolution.

If your view is that if only the CNT/FAI had had all the same history, reach, and organizational strength that it actually had, but its ideology and leadership had been Leninist instead of anarchist, then Spain would be a thriving example of socialism today, that’s a pretty big claim. It would take some pretty extensive and detailed argumentation to convince anyone but the most dogmatic Leninist, and frankly I wouldn’t bother because it’s a pretty absurd counterfactual.

Although I have some anarchist sympathies, I don’t consider myself an anarchist. Nevertheless, I consider the anarchist-led revolution in Spain in 1936 to be one of the most inspiring (and most heartbreaking) episodes in the history of anti-capitalist struggle.

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stevenjohnson2 January 5, 2014 at 2:45 pm

In my second post, I freely volunteered the admission that I wrote hastily. That said, I’m not arguing that if the anarchists had been Leninists they would have won. This was the period of the show trials, whose moral was that international revolution and fascism were both enemies of Stalin’s USSR, making it a suitable candidate for collective security with the “democratic” imperialists. The PCE was tailing the bourgeoisie and was not going to carry out the kind of revolutionary war that was the only hope for victory against the Nationalists (and the forces arrayed behind them.)

Again, what I am trying to argue against is the insistence that only Stalin is responsible for the triumph of fascism in Spain. And although counterfactual arguments are tricky, it is still very likely that if the Loyalist government had been winning, whether under Anarchist leadership or bourgeois, that Stalin or Antonov-Ovseenko or the PCE would have remained a tail that didn’t wag the dog. Its strength within the Loyalist government was far more an unhappy product of defeat than the cause. The emphasis on Stalin as sole cause alibis the role of US/British/French de facto support for Franco with the benefit of advancing antiCommunism. Or, Rosa Luxemburg dead in a canal is so much less frightening than Rosa Luxemburg in power.

Anarchists have never been successful in advancing, much less winning, any revolution anywhere anytime. Perhaps I shouldn’t draw such far reaching conclusions as I do? At any rate, I tend to think that unsuccessful challenges to anticapitalism are often sentimentalized by historians precisely because they are redeemed by failure. Indian Wars in the eastern US were far too scary to allow the survivors to glorify the losers but in the western US, Red Cloud and Crazy Horse and Sitting Bull and Chief Joseph can be permitted a meaningless dignity.

Last, you write “like saying that the plantation system, the ideology of white supremacy, the doctrine of states’ rights, the formation of the Confederate government, and the revolt at Fort Sumter were the primary reasons that the South lost the Civil War.” First, these actually are positions argued by professional historians. In fact, the last, which is usually phrased as Lincoln tricking the South into shooting first, is a commonplace! Second, it is the argument that Stalin was responsible for the defeat in the Spanish Civil War that is the historiographical equivalent of the arguments you say make no sense. There is the same tacit assumption that victory was only lost by some villain’s betrayal or some fool’s incompetence.

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Wolf October 29, 2015 at 6:34 pm

I am an anticapitalist revolutionary.
Written above is one good reason why we, the radical left, are collectively a laughing stock. A full blown argument over the Spanish Revolution actually did occur in response to a blog suggestion that Ursula Le Guin’s 1974 sci-fi set in an imagined solar system could be an interesting novel for left-wingers to read.
I ain’t saying that’s something that ought never to be discussed. I’m saying that the bloodthirsty enthusiasm to strike furious differential poses at the drop of a hat, over historical questions in the most unrelated forums, really does help to drive motor wooden stakes into the heart of the hopefully-soon-to-be-raised-again undead radical left.

David Hays January 1, 2014 at 6:35 pm

You did catch that Modulus was calling Heinlein’s work reactionary in a roundabout way didn’t you?

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mckenziewark December 30, 2013 at 8:39 pm

Kim Stanley Robinson.

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stevenjohnson2 December 30, 2013 at 8:54 pm

I do believe that Beyond This Horizon (which also had reincarnation by the way!) was more than slightly influenced by Social Credit. And the posthumously published novel For Us, the Living, was even more so as I recall. This is not so strange. Keynes in his General Theory condescended to mention Major Douglas, Social Credit’s prophet.

Mack Reynolds, a more or less forgotten pulp novelist, was born into the Socialist Labor Party. One I almost remember was about an experiment where academics intervened on a rediscovered colony world that had regressed. One team led a free market society and the other led a planned economy in a race to see which was superior.

Terry Bisson was pretty leftwing. His Fire on the Mountain was an alternate history novel where John Brown won.

Maureen McHugh’s China Mountain Zhang is set in a future socialist US, albeit one somewhat tattered by its Cleansing Winds campaign (parallel to the Cultural Revolution) and behind its forerunner into socialism, China.

Kim Stanley Robinson’s recent Science in the Capital trilogy is somehow both reformist and utopian, but by contemporary standards of US SF that makes it pretty extreme. I understand his Gold Coast trilogy is critical of capitalism?

But one of the grandfathers of SF is Bellamy’s Looking Forward (and it had sequel as I recall.) The aforementioned Mack Reynolds even did updated versions.

And of the world class authors who’ve been demoted from the literary canon, H.G. Wells is remembered for SF. Jack London’s The Iron Heel was once famed in socialist circles. I do believe a sequence in Robert Heinlein’s The Moon Is a Harsh Mistress paid its chapter on the Chicago Commune the most flattering tribute.

More deservedly forgotten are Ignatius Donnelly’s nineteenth century Caesars’ Column, also about future revolution, which is as dreary and schematic as official opinion libels The Iron Heel. I gather there is a pulp romance about Olga Romanoff, the Angel of the Revolution too.

Also forgotten is Nobel laureate Sinclair Lewis’ It Can’t Happen Here, about a Fascist takeover in the US. The modern version is Philip Roth’s The Plot Against America, which appears to be an alternate biography of Philip Roth, oppressed Jew. I’m not a literary person, so I haven’t read any more Roth, but this was a disconcerting experience.

Francis Spufford’s Red Plenty is notorious and I get the impression there are people who think of themselves as leftists who find it fascinating.

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John O'Donoghue December 30, 2013 at 9:43 pm

China Melville..’Perdido Street Station’…’Iron Council’…. shocked that he didn’t make the list!

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Xor December 30, 2013 at 11:07 pm

How did this list forget David Lasser? Arguably one of the first (if not the first) space syfy novelists ever whose socialist activities got denied payment by the WPA during the Great Depression.

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tethra December 31, 2013 at 12:17 am

+1 for Ken Mcleod and Iain Banks. I wish I had more to contribute than that!

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Wayne Collins December 31, 2013 at 12:51 am

In “Equality,” Bellamy’s sequel to “Looking Backward,” he pulled back from some of the more undemocratic and authoritarian aspects of “Looking Backward.” But Bellamy’s work gave rise to a movement of sorts, knows as the Bellamy Nationalist Movement with hundreds of “Bellamy Nationalist Clubs” and publications throughout the country – not just in Chicopee Falls, New York. So far as I know the only work that deal with Bellamy is a political critique is Arthur Lipow’s “Authoritarian Socialism in America.”
On the other hand, Bellamy is more of what was called a utopian novelist as, in fact, Donnelly was called. Some of these works could be called anti-utopian or dystopian, but most of them pre-date the technological capacities or disasters modern science fiction seems to assume. See, for example, Moore, Arrington, Campanella, Bacon and others.
Philip Dick was heavily influenced by ex-Communist, ex-Trotskyist Norm Mini, but his fiction was never published and Henry Miller called him the “greatest unpublished writer in America.” Socialist writers Lillian Symes and Travers Clement called him the “greatest unpublished proletarian writer in America.” One of the novels is set in San Quentin where he spent three years for criminal syndicalism.
Hal Draper published a science fiction story in Harpers back in 1964. It seems that a lot of socialists have been attracted to science fiction – whether they admit it or not.
Wayne Collins

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modulus December 31, 2013 at 7:27 am

It is true that Heinlein’s politics became very problematic later. Some of his work exploring racism is, looked at retrospectively and probably even at the time, pretty embarrassing. For example Farnham’s Freehold. When he wrote Beyond this Horizon though his politics hadn’t crystalised into the form they would later, and most agree he was responsible in pushing back against even more blatant forms of racism in the 1940s SF magazines.

I admit it’s not a particularly socialist work, but it’s notable on the grounds that at least once upon a time Heinlein could imagine an economy that wasn’t based on market principles.

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Kevin O'Neill January 1, 2014 at 9:05 pm

“I’m pretty far left, and basically socialist.”

Ursula K. LeGuin

http://www.themillions.com/2013/01/getting-away-with-murder-the-millions-interviews-ursula-k-le-guin.html

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stevenjohnson2 January 2, 2014 at 4:42 pm

Better to read her work than an interview. You can’t read just The Dispossessed, you have to read Malafrena as well.

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Guest January 3, 2014 at 7:41 pm

No such list should leave off Pohl & Kornbluth’s The Space Merchants (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Space_Merchants). One of the best sci-fi critiques of capitalism ever published (not particularly subtle, but gripping and often funny as hell). Its radicalism is especially refreshing for something published in 1952.

The original post above focuses primarily on science fiction works “about” socialism. I think I like the wider-ranging focus of Miéville’s list better, which is essentially science fiction “for,” or of interest to, socialists. Sure, most science fiction in some sense “looks to the future”– but it’s also true that sci-fi, like all literature, first of all reflects the concerns of the society in which it’s written. (Nothing’s so antique as yesterday’s vision of the future.)

But Modulus’s post rightly emphasizes SF’s potential power in telling lively stories that show that “another world is possible; things change”– that many of the patterns of life that we take for granted today are not permanent but socially constructed. So there’s not much about socialism, per se, in a novel like Miéville’s The City and the City (http://tinyurl.com/City-TheCityTelegraphReview)– but no socialist who’s interested by science fiction should miss it. And while there is an alternate-history socialist republic in North America in one part of Terry Bisson’s Fire on the Mountain (http://tinyurl.com/PM-Press-Fire-On-the-Mountain), that’s not as central to it (or what makes it so brilliant) as what it offers about slavery, race, the nature of rebellion, and US cultural & political history.

Along with the books just mentioned, I’d highly recommend Lucius Shepard’s harrowing Life During Wartime (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Life_During_Wartime_(novel) ), which shows up on Miéville’s list.

FWIW, Fred Pohl (co-author of Space Merchants) joined the Young Communist League in 1936, & was head of a branch in Flatbush, Brooklyn. He drifted away after the German-Soviet pact of 1939, & his obit in the NY Times last September states that his time in the YCL “left Mr. Pohl suspicious of grand schemes of social engineering.” The Times doesn’t mention how it affected his views of capitalism.

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PrintHead1436 January 3, 2014 at 7:49 pm

No such list should leave off Pohl & Kornbluth’s The Space Merchants (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Space_Merchants ). One of the best sci-fi critiques of capitalism ever published (not particularly subtle, but gripping and often funny as hell). Its radicalism is especially refreshing for something published in 1952.

The original post above focuses primarily on science fiction works “about” socialism. I think I like the wider-ranging focus of Miéville’s list better, which is essentially science fiction “for,” or of interest to, socialists. Sure, most science fiction in some sense “looks to the future”– but it’s also true that sci-fi, like all literature, first of all reflects the concerns of the society in which it’s written. (Nothing’s so antique as yesterday’s vision of the future.)

But Modulus’s post rightly emphasizes SF’s potential power in telling lively stories that show that “another world is possible; things change”– that many of the patterns of life that we take for granted today are not permanent but socially constructed. So there’s not much about socialism, per se, in a novel like Miéville’s The City and the City (http://tinyurl.com/City-TheCityTelegraphReview )– but no socialist who’s interested by science fiction should miss it. And while there is an alternate-history socialist republic in North America in one part of Terry Bisson’s Fire on the Mountain (http://tinyurl.com/PM-Press-Fire-On-the-Mountain ), that’s not as central to it (or what makes it so brilliant) as what it offers about slavery, race, the nature of rebellion, and US cultural & political history.

Along with the books just mentioned, I’d highly recommend Lucius Shepard’s harrowing Life During Wartime (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Life_During_Wartime_(novel) ), which shows up on Miéville’s list.

FWIW, Fred Pohl (co-author of Space Merchants) joined the Young Communist League between 1936, was head of a branch in Flatbush, Brooklyn, left shortly after the German-Soviet pact of 1939. His obit in the NY Times last September states that his time in the YCL “left Mr. Pohl suspicious of grand schemes of social engineering.” The Times doesn’t mention how it affected his views of capitalism.

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